My design process as a whole is collaborative, adaptable, and welcomes potential future iteration. I've always liked the "design scribble" as a metaphor for the experience of designing, but felt it was too linear for projects that have long-term goals. Within a circular, iterative adaptation of this framework, I see my design process as falling into four main categories: research, concept development, prototyping, and refinement.

During the first phase, ambiguity is high as I seek to question my assumptions through research. While uncertainty is still high during the concept development phase, patterns begin to emerge that ultimately provide direction. During the prototyping stage, details take shape that focus the design even further. Finally, the refinement stage synthesizes everything discovered in the prior phases into a single design solution. However, with time it's possible that the project should be revisited from a different angle based on feedback, and a new phase of research, concept development, and prototyping may be necessary. Below I've gone into further detail on what each of these phases means to me.


Questions: Who are we designing for? What are we designing, and why? What exists currently?

Methods: Interviews, workshops, observations, stakeholder and systems mapping, personas, auditing, benchmarking, and diagraming.

A preliminary workshop for Peacebuilding 101.

A flow chart for an admissions workflow project.

Concept Development

Questions: What should be the goal of the design? What possible approaches should we consider? How would different approaches play out in the contexts in which they would exist?

Methods: Sketching, storyboarding, and collaborative brainstorming.

Collaborative brainstorming for ImmunityEd.

Storyboarding for Mental Models.


Questions: How do different approaches look and feel? How do different approaches function and behave?

Methods: Paper prototyping, sketching, and digital rendering (Photoshop/Illustrator/AfterEffects/InDesign).

Paper prototyping for Mental Landscapes.

Digital rendering for an admissions workflow project.


Questions: What should be added, emphasized, or deleted? How can we synthesize what we've learned?

Methods: User testing, internal and external review/critique, and increasingly detailed iteration.

A refined iteration of a sitemap I created for ImmunityEd, based on internal and external critique.

An added interaction for Excel for DataViz, based on user feedback.